Facing Three Fundamental Fears About the Coronavirus
A primer on the most essential, but often misunderstood, aspects of Covid- 19 BY: Bo Stapler, MD Hospitalist, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics

Facing Three Fundamental Fears About

the Coronavirus

A primer on the most essential, but often misunderstood, aspects of Covid-


BY: Bo Stapler, MD

Hospitalist, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics

June 29, 2020

mid the daily barrage of new data on Covid-19, sometimes the most basic principles of

the disease manage to evade the headlines. I recognize this by the types of questions I

hear on a regular basis from friends, family, and even my co-workers at the hospital.

Let’s address three of the most common concerns.

1. Since immunity to the novel coronavirus may not last long,

doesn’t the virus need to be eradicated in order for the

pandemic to end?

Humans generally become immune to a pathogen after immunization or recovery from

an infection. Depending on the particular disease or vaccine as well as host

characteristics such as the age and health of the individual, immunity can last a lifetime

or may be short-lived. Moreover, immunity is not an ‘either/or’ process. Our immunity to

different pathogens doesn’t just suddenly switch off. Instead, it wanes over time.

It is true that a person’s immunity to the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, probably only

lasts a few months to a few years. It is also true that outbreaks of two other

coronaviruses earlier this century, SARS and MERS, were indeed contained, although

not technically eradicated. However, the other four known human coronaviruses, HCoV-

229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1, are considered endemic. These viruses, which have

been around longer than the other three, are continuously circulating through the

population and typically cause no more symptoms than the common cold.

Interestingly, there is historical evidence that the four endemic coronaviruses were likely

the cause of pandemics, or at least epidemics, in the past. Of course, this would have

been long enough ago that people didn’t know what a coronavirus was, but humankind

managed to recover anyway. These older coronaviruses now permeate among the

population. People often become exposed at a young age, and, as with SARS-CoV-2,

the vast majority of children have no symptoms or a minor respiratory infection. Even

though immunity to these viruses diminishes over time, because they are endemic and

continuously circulate through the population, every few years our immune systems are

again exposed and receive a refresher course on how to kill the virus.

With possible exception to geographically isolated locations like Iceland and New

Zealand, SARS-CoV-2 is on a path to becoming endemic like its older endemic

coronavirus siblings. In fact, since March, for most regions containment has no longer

been a strategy for managing SARS-CoV-2 as it was during the previous SARS and

MERS outbreaks. SARS and MERS have a higher fatality rate than Covid-19, and it is

for that very reason they were able to be contained. Since patients infected with SARS

and MERS were more often symptomatic, generally developed more severe symptoms,

and had a shorter period of time between exposure and the onset of symptoms, cases

were recognized sooner, contacts were more easily traced, and further spread was

prevented through quarantining.

“The coronavirus is spreading too rapidly, and too broadly for the U.S. to bring it under

control with testing and contact tracing.” — Dr. Anne Schuchat, CDC Deputy Director,


While contract tracing and quarantining strategies remain important during the Covid-19

pandemic, they are aimed at protecting vulnerable groups and reducing the overall

transmission of the virus rather than ultimately containing or eradicating the virus. At this

point eliminating SARS-CoV-2 worldwide is essentially impossible. Fortunately, however,

as was the case with the four endemic coronaviruses, eradication is not a requirement

for the pandemic to end.

2. Because the novel coronavirus is so much more deadly and

harmful than the other four endemic coronaviruses, won’t

society have a huge problem if it becomes endemic?

Despite all the talk (and I’m not discounting that these are important things to discuss

right now) about why SARS-CoV-2 is so infectious with its spike protein and ability to

damage endothelial tissue, by far the biggest reason Covid-19 is so deadly is that before

autumn of 2019 no human immune system in the world had ever encountered the virus.

In contrast, the endemic coronaviruses don’t spread as quickly or with such lethality

because most people’s immune systems have seen them before.

I’ve seen adults, children, and infants in the hospital infected with one of the four older

coronaviruses. These patients almost always recover. I’ve cared for the hospitalized,

frail, and elderly suffering from Covid-19 and, as you know, recovery is far from a


However, I can all but guarantee that the vast majority of people who recover from

Covid-19 now aren’t going to be dying from it in their later years — for the same reason

we don’t see waves of elderly people succumbing to the endemic coronaviruses. On a

repeat encounter with SARS-CoV-2, their immune systems will know what to do. Even if

their immunity has waned and some develop symptoms, a re-exposure will generally

result in a recovery rather then a fatality.

All this means that SARS-CoV-2 won’t always be as deadly as it is now. It is destined to

become the fifth endemic coronavirus, and in all likelihood, over time it will become no

more deadly than the common cold.

3. If herd immunity is the only foreseeable way the pandemic

will end, don’t we need a vaccine in order for this to happen?

If you’ve been following the situation closely, you are likely familiar with the term, herd

immunity, which can be defined as the minimum percentage of a population needed to

be immune to a disease in order for the disease not to transmit efficiently. Estimates

vary, but it is thought that somewhere around 45–60% of the population must develop

immunity to Covid-19 either naturally or by vaccination in order to slow and eventually

stop the spread of the virus.

Recall that humans in the past — populations that included our ancestors — managed to

recover from coronavirus pandemics or epidemics. This didn’t occur because of a

vaccine or medicine, it was on the strength of their collective immune systems. Did

people have healthier immune systems back then? It’s possible. Did fewer people die

because the population was younger? Also possible, but regardless, humans managed

to develop herd immunity to these older coronaviruses without even trying. It just sort of


Don’t get me wrong, as a doctor, I’m a huge supporter of vaccines. Measles and polio

are fantastic examples of how vaccines can be a life-saving method of establishing herd

immunity. But humans have also achieved herd immunity by natural means with other

viruses such as parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus, and the four endemic

coronaviruses. So, while I am grateful for the brilliant investigators all over the world

diligently striving to develop a vaccine, I hope it has become apparent that, whether help

arrives from a vaccine or not, we will indeed overcome this virus.